Historic: August 2011 Archives

Photos: Riverside's citrus legacy

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Two weeks back, we featured an item on the recent unveiling of a downtown statue honoring Riverside citrus pioneer Eliza L. Tibbets.

In the early 1870s, Eliza secured two small navel orange trees from the U.S. Department of Agriculture for test planting in Riverside. Originating as a mutation in Bahia, Brazil, these navel trees took well to Riverside's semi-arid climate, producing a sweet, succulent and seedless navel orange. California -- and in particular, Inland Southern California -- would never be the same.

The unveiling of the statue prompted us to dig through our image bank for photos associated with Riverside's citrus legacy. Of course, it also forced us to go out and take some new photos for items we didn't already have (and update some we did).

Though certainly not a complete collection of images related to Riverside's citrus past (nor does it include images from other local citrus-rich communities, namely Redlands, Corona and Upland), we feel the gallery still manages to show the wide-reaching importance the navel orange played in shaping both Riverside's landscape and its history -- a history that was dramatically changed with the arrival of two seemingly inconspicuous navel orange trees in 1873.

Photo Gallery: Riverside's Citrus Legacy

Related

Sources: "A Colony For California" (Tom Patterson), "Pursuing Eden - Matthew Gage: His Challenges, Conquests and Calamities" (Joan H. Hall), "A Citrus Legacy" (Joan H. Hall), "Adobes, Bungalows, and Mansions of Riverside, California Revisited" (Esther H. Klotz, Joan H. Hall), City of Riverside, The Press-Enterprise, Riverside Public Library


riv-2011c-dt-mall-001ac-500.jpg
2011
Downtown pedestrian mall

riv-2011c-dt-mall-020-500.jpg
2011
Eliza Lovell Tibbets

riv-2011c-dt-mall-013-800.jpg
2011
Dedication plaque

riv-2011c-dt-mall-008a-800.jpg
2011
Pedestal
(Patricia P. Ortlieb is
Eliza's great-great granddaughter)

tibbets-eliza-luther-001-600.jpg
Eliza and Luther Tibbets

riv-navel-001a-800.jpg
2001
State Historic Landmark

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2008
Parent Navel
(w/ Eliza's historical marker)

riv-2008c-parentnavel-004-500.jpg
2008
Eliza's marker

riv-2009c-tibbets-003-800.jpg
2009
Original location of trees
(w/ Luther's historical marker)

riv-2009c-tibbets-006-800.jpg
2009
Luther's marker

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2011
Riverside orange grove

After 14 years of planning, a long-awaited statue honoring Riverside citrus pioneer Eliza Tibbets was unveiled last week in downtown.

Spearheaded by Kathryn Gage (a distant relative of Eliza through marriage) and created by artist/sculptor (and former Corona resident) Guy A. Wilson, the 11-foot statue rises above the outdoor pedestrian mall at Sixth Street near the Mission Inn. Entitled "Sower's Dream," it commemorates Eliza and her role in originating California's highly successful navel orange industry.

The 1,100 pound bronze statue depicts Eliza with outstretched arms and billowing dress. It is meant to portray a young Eliza as opposed to the older "Queen Victoria" Eliza most associate with Mrs. Tibbets' time living in Riverside.

Included on the statue are etchings of navel oranges and a replica of a "Woman's Relief Corps" medal, no doubt a nod to Eliza's women's suffrage activism. Several tiles surrounding the statue include the names of those who helped make it a reality. Planted nearby are two navel orange trees.

The statue honors not only Eliza the navel orange matriarch, but also Eliza the spiritualist, abolitionist and activist. Though quite impressive, our only real complaint is that its homage to Riverside's navel orange is maybe a bit too subtle and not instantly recognizable by casual passers-by. (Holding an orange in her outstretched hands may have easily done the trick.) Regardless, we give the statue a positive thumbs up.

For those not familiar with local history, Eliza (along with husband Luther) was a pioneer in California's multi-million dollar navel orange industry. In fact, if not for Eliza, Riverside -- and California in general -- certainly would have been much different.

In 1873 (or 1875, the exact year is a bit unclear), she secured two small navel orange trees from the U.S. Department of Agriculture for test planting in Riverside (some had been previously -- and again later -- shipped to Florida, where they failed). Originating as a mutation in Bahia, Brazil, these navel trees took well to Riverside's semi-arid climate, producing a sweet, succulent and seedless navel orange. (It has been said that Eliza used dishwater to sustain the original trees during dry periods.)

With the first fruits shown to local residents in 1878, and much more widely in 1879 at Riverside's first formal Citrus Fair, this new citrus variety -- sometimes referred to as the "Riverside Navel" but officially known as the "Washington Navel" -- quickly became the star attraction. Its taste and texture was found to be far superior than the seeded Valencia variety grown in California's coastal areas, including nearby Orange County. (In general, Valencia's are used for juicing while navels are considered much tastier for eating.)

As word of Riverside's new thick-skinned and sun-kissed orange spread, local growers began requesting -- and obtaining -- budstock grafted straight from the Tibbets' two original trees (grafting was required due to the oranges' lack of seeds). As such, these "parent navel" trees eventually propagated California's entire navel orange industry, making them one of the most successful fruit introductions in U.S. history.

By 1882, there were more than half a million citrus trees in California, with nearly half planted in the Riverside area alone. Within a short time, a powerful growing/marketing cooperative (California Fruit Growers Exchange, later known as Sunkist) was born and advances in picking and packaging (FMC Corp.) combined with improvements in shipping (refrigerated rail cars) led to a second California "gold rush" of sorts. Soon, wealthy easterners began flocking to Inland Southern California, buying large tracts of land for groves and building impressive homes. As a result, Riverside was the richest city per capita in the U.S. in 1895.

Today, reminders of the city's citrus legacy are still present, two of which directly credit Eliza and Luther Tibbets. Interestingly, a late fracture in the Tibbets' family ended up creating two distinct historical markers, both with the same planting year of 1873, but each crediting either Eliza or Luther independently for the trees and their eventual success.

At any rate, the most significant of these two reminders is located at the corner of Magnolia and Arlington avenues where one of the two original parent navel orange trees still stands bearing fruit. Over the years, "grafting" budstock from it remained popular enough that the city eventually needed to protect the remaining parent navel by securing it behind a fence. A plaque placed here in 1920 credits Eliza.

The other significant item directly related to the parent navels is a tiny marker located at the corner of Central Avenue and Navel Court, near where the two trees originally stood at the former Tibbets' home (long since paved over). This marker, placed in 1935 by Luther's daughter Minnie Tibbets Mills, credits Luther.

Both parent navel trees were later replanted, one in 1902 at the fenced-off city corner previously mentioned and the other in 1903 (during a visit by President Theodore Roosevelt) to a courtyard inside the Mission Inn, where it died in 1921.

Elsewhere around Riverside are other reminders, including citrus exchange buildings (Arlington Heights / Sunkist | Riverside Navel Growers Assoc.), citrus packinghouses (Sutherland Fruit Co. | E.T. Wall), citrus machinery and shipping facilities, the Gage Canal irrigation system and large swaths of orange groves along Victoria and Dufferin avenues. And of course, there's the California Citrus State Historic Park, which includes a museum with interpretive exhibits, lush picnic areas, walking paths and working citrus groves.

And although several structures, such as the Mission Inn, Riverside County Courthouse and numerous homes, owe their opulence to the once mighty citrus industry, probably the most significant entity stemming from Riverside's citrus legacy is the University of California at Riverside (UCR) campus.

What began in 1907 as the Citrus Experiment Station (at the base* of Mount Rubidoux), eventually transformed into a general campus of the University of California system in 1959 (at the base* of Box Springs Mountain -- 3 miles to the east).

Today, UCR's "Citrus Variety Collection" is among the most extensive of its kind in the world. The campus, home to nearly 20,000 students, has greatly expanded beyond its initial focus of citrus research and plays a major role within Inland Southern California's economy.

And to think, it all began with two, seemingly inconspicuous navel orange trees planted in a fledgling Riverside garden by Eliza Lovell Tibbets.

Photo Gallery: Riverside's Citrus Legacy

Related


riv-2011c-dt-mall-026-500.jpg
2011
Eliza Tibbets
riv-2011c-dt-mall-014a-700.jpg
2011
About Eliza
riv-2011c-dt-mall-015a-700.jpg
2011
'Sower's
Dream'
riv-2011c-dt-mall-017-800.jpg
2011
Orange homage
riv-2011c-dt-mall-022-500.jpg
2011
Shadow
figure


* Courtesy of UC Riverside

Sources: "A Colony For California" (Tom Patterson), City of Riverside, The Press-Enterprise, Riverside Public Library, "Riverside's Invisible Past" (Joan H. Hall), Sunkist, WikiPedia.


About this Archive

This page is a archive of entries in the Historic category from August 2011.

Historic: June 2011 is the previous archive.

Historic: November 2011 is the next archive.

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